A recent research revealed that loss of beta cells of the pancreas responsible for the production of insulin may contribute to the development of diabetes.
The researchers discovered four distinct beta cell types. The Cluster 1 beta cells produce more insulin than other beta cells and appear better at metabolizing sugar. The research indicates that the loss of these beta cells contributes to type 2 diabetes.
Pancreas helps to regulate blood sugar levels which secrete the hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide.
The researchers used a technique called single-cell transcriptomics to measure all the genes expressed in individual mouse beta cells and then used that information to group them into four types. The cluster 1 beta cells help mitochondria to break down sugar and secrete more insulin.
The CD63 antigen provided a way to identify the cells without destroying them and allowed us to study the live cells.
It has been found that cluster 1 beta cells with high CD63 gene expression produce more insulin in response to sugar than the three other types of beta cells with low CD63 expression.
However, humans with type 2 diabetes had lower levels of high CD63 beta cells compared to those without diabetes. The study also involved existing diabetes treatments affecting all types of beta cells.
Moreover, GLP-1 agonists might be a way to get the low CD63-producing beta cells to work better.