As the country grappling with the second wave of the Covid-19 pandemic, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has developed three types of ventilators.

It has also decided to transfer the technology to the industry for clinical usage.

The ventilator called Programmable Respiratory Assistance for the Needy Aid (PRANA) is based on the automated compression of an Artificial Manual Breathing Unit (AMBU) bag.

This low-cost and portable critical care ventilator has a sophisticated control system.

ISRO said the system is equipped with an airway pressure sensor, flow sensor, oxygen sensor, servo actuator as well as expiration and Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) control valves.

The physicians can select the ventilation mode and set the required parameters through a touch screen panel and monitor various parameters like pressure, flow, tidal volume and oxygen concentration on the same screen.

The ventilator can deliver the required flow of oxygen-air mixture to the patient’s lung at the desired rate set by the clinicians.

The system has a provision to attach an external battery for backup during power failure.

ISRO said PRANA supports both invasive and non-invasive ventilation modes and is capable of giving mandatory breaths as well as spontaneous breaths.

A robust algorithm for controlled and safe ventilation of the patient is implemented which raises alarm and opens safety valves to prevent barotrauma, asphyxia and apnoea during the ventilation.

The alarm is also raised in case of improper connection of the ventilation circuit or inadvertent disconnection of the hose or sensors.

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